1919 January Uprising in Germany
January Uprising or Sparacist Uprising, 4th to 15th January 1919.
As in November 1918, a second revolutionary wave developed on 4 January 1919 when the government dismissed the Police Chief of Berlin, Emil Eichhorn, who was a member of the USPD and who had refused to act against the demonstrating workers during the Christmas Crisis.
The USPD, the Revolutionary Stewards and KPD took up Eichhorn's call for a demonstration to take place on the following day. The demonstration turned into a huge, mass rally which also attracted the support of many Socialist Party members. On Sunday 5 January, as on 9 November 1918, hundreds of thousands of people poured into the centre of Berlin, many of them armed, erecting blockades and occupying buildings.
On 8th January, the President of Germany, Friedrich Ebert ordered the Freikorps to attack the workers. They quickly re-conquered the blocked streets and buildings and many of the insurgents surrendered. On the evening of 15 January, Luxemburg and Liebknecht were discovered in a Berlin-Wilmersdorf apartment, arrested and handed over to the largest Freikorps unit, the heavily armed Garde-Kavallerie-Schützen-Division. Their commander, Captain Waldemar Pabst, had them questioned. That same night, both prisoners were beaten unconscious with rifle butts and shot in the head. Rosa Luxemburg's body was thrown into the Landwehr Canal, where it was found on 1 June. Karl Liebknecht's body was delivered anonymously to a morgue.